Winter is coming

It’s October [edit: Actually November now– I really slacked off on blogging this fall] in New England, and the leaves are changing color. Days are getting noticeably shorter, sometimes almost 3 minutes shorter per day! The Northwest wind is blowing from the Canadian shield, bringing with it colder temperatures and high winds aloft. What’s a pilot to do?

It’s flyable, but not as often as it was in the summer.

If you can stand the cold, and your wing is fast enough, you can fly some winter days. The days are are shorter though, so with the sun setting before the workday ends, you may find yourself limited to only weekend flying. A strobe light is a helpful piece of equipment to have. Per FAR 103, if you wear a strobe light that is visible for 3 miles in all directions, you can fly up to 30 minutes before sunrise and 30 minutes after sunset, which might make the difference between driving home after work or flying for a few sweet (cold!) minutes.

Just in time for winter 2017-2018, I started importing the brightest strobe lights I could find that still held up to the vibration of our motors. I have a long history with strobe lights, but that’s a story for another post. See my HsCOM STR1 Strobe Lights if you want that extra hour of flying time per day.

What’s with the wind?

In the winter months, the Jet Stream descends from its summer home around the North Pole to cripple flying in the Northeast. OK, so that’s anthropomorphizing the weather a bit , but basically, we have the polar vortex to blame for our speedy winds. Today for example, as I write this, winds are 59mph at 3000 feet. Generally whatever is happening at 3000 feet is happening almost as fast just about the trees; What’s to stop it? Fortunately, the Jet Stream, like all air and water currents, snakes back and forth– sometimes whipping us, and sometimes giving us a break from the breeze.

How do I stay warm?

With your hands high above your heart and thrust out into the fast-moving air sucking past your propeller, your hands WILL be the thing that will make you want to land (and maybe cry a little).

Gloves are a must. Some of us launch while wearing gloves, but beware that it may be hard to hit your kill switch with thick, soft gloves. Also, you won’t be able to feel the lines and brakes quite as well as you could with no gloves. You can launch without gloves, climb to altitude, and put them on in the air. As a middle ground, try buying gloves that come with removable liners. You can launch with the liners on your hands (giving you some protection from the cold) then put the outer gloves on in flight.

Many of us fly with heated gloves. I don’t personally wear them, but that’s because I’m a bit of a weight snob, and my machismo doesn’t allow me to wear warm clothes in the winter. I’m working on that personal issue, as it’s clear that heated gloves are the way to go. Those pilots who wear heated gloves swear they are incredibly comfortable, and make all the difference for winter flying. Don’t leave them on and heated for too long on the ground– sweaty hands are miserable if they get cold again!

I’ve tried heatpacks. On moderately cold days (above freezing), they seem to work. On really cold days, hand heatpacks aren’t adequate. I use foot heatpacks in my gloves, but they just create a hot spot on my hands, and my fingers still freeze. Heatpacks in your boots are recommended, though.

With it being cold, there’ll be no thermals, right?

Not so, I’m afraid. You’ll still want to avoid flying midday most days if you want to avoid thermals. It is indeed still possible to thermal in the winter, as thermals are pumped by differences in temperature.

Thermals aren’t causing most of that turbulence, though. If it’s windy out, that wind is spilling over the terrain, trees and buildings. 15mph wind causes rotor turbulence during the summer, but when the wind just about the trees is approaching 30mph on an otherwise warm winter day, you can expect the turbulence to be 4 times stronger. Sometimes though, wind is much faster than that for days, and it should be pretty obvious that you shouldn’t be flying a craft that only flies around 25mph.

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Paramotor Thermalling

I get asked about paramotor thermalling very often. I love both motoring and thermalling, but I rarely combine the sports. I’ll admit I love thermalling free-flight more than motoring, and I feel the motor dampens the sensations I’m accustomed to in my free-flight harness. Nevertheless, it can be done, if you’re into that sort of thing.

Why bother?

  • It’s like a different sport you can do with mostly the same equipment
  • Practice bump tolerance and appropriate reactions for free-flying
  • Paragliders are designed to fly in thermals. Beginner wings are more stable and more likely to recover on their own. Advanced wings have a complicated outcome, and can get out of control really, really fast. For that reason, a pilot who motors a hot paramotor wing at 55mph might fly a slower, docile, EN-A or -B wing in thermals.

What extra equipment do you need?

  • Variometer (App or Instrument). Turn the volume up all the way so you can hear it beep over the wind noise of your paramotor frame.
  • Sunglasses and Sunscreen
  • Some extra safety equipment– beyond your standard kit, which around here, should include a hook knife and flotation.
    • Reserve. Definitely carry a reserve and rehearse using it.
    • In New England– tree rescue kit, or at least a SPOT or Garmin InReach (satellite communication, long battery life)

How do you prepare for this undertaking?

  • Accept the risk. Risk is increased due to turbulence when entering and exiting thermals, and potentially due to rotor near the ground as the wind picks up throughout the day. You are forfeiting the safety that was inherent in flying the non-thermic mornings and evenings.
  • Get lots of practice flying in bumpy air. I got mine through my paragliding career, where I flew in turbulent air most of the time. If all you have is a motor, rack up lots of hours flying your wing in air a little bit bumpier than you usually tolerate. Stay high. You need to be comfortable and calm when the air tosses you around– and it will, especially at first.
  • SIV (Simulation d’Incident en Vol). These are courses usually taught over water with a rescue boat. You are guided through a series of self-inflicted inflight maladies, and then guided through their solution. Attending one is highly recommended, especially if you can practice in your motor. For most people it builds confidence. For all, it builds familiarity with the wing. If you thermal long enough, you will eventually see something that resembles an SIV maneuver, and you’ll know how your wing respond to it, and how you should respond to your wing.

In this post I’m just describing the extra considerations required to fly midday. Don’t take any of this information as instruction– Midday flying is really ramping up the risk, and flying without significant weather experience is foolhardy at best.

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August Update

Sunset flight

It’s been a while since my last update. I’ve been really busy, which is great!

Noteworthy items:

I had a couple of new students in July/August. J needed some touch-up training and help with Airspace and FAR 103, as well as transitional training on the Trike. He progressed quickly and his launches were excellent after just a few flights. Robbie assembled his new Scout Carbon and joined the ranks of the flying (had his first flight) at the end of July. His launches and landings have been great so far, and he was landing on his feet from the first flights, which keeps that sleek Scout motor clean.

Robbie breaking-in his Scout Carbon Moster 185. This is one thoughtfully designed machine. I really like the Safe-Start mechanism– It works!

I have to give a huge thumbs up to Miniplane-USA for servicing a motor that was giving a local pilot trouble. Miniplane and Minari stood behind their product 200% and replaced a defective unit. You’ve made a pilot very happy!

Chris enjoying his new Miniplane Minari 180.

We had some beautiful late summer flights, including some pretty long excursions and triangular flights paths. When the summer winds down, the air calms down a bit. As I write this, we’re in a 3-day-streak of some of the best weather I’ve seen in months.

Ogunquit Beach under pearlescent skies.

There is still one spot open in the September 16-24 class. First person to pay the deposit gets it! I also added 2 slots for September 30-October 8.

Terms of training have changed, based on results I’ve seen this year. You can train on a school motor for up to 15 flights, but after that you have to buy your own motor. However, you can now come back at any time within a year of your start date for additional training. This flexibility has been added to accommodate those with demanding jobs who can’t take a whole 9 days off, and for people who need extra time learning.

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Raiding a Blueberry Patch from the Sky!

The blueberries were ripe, and there were hundreds of acres of them. I was hungry and a little thirsty. I figured “I’ve had a lot of good flying today. I have a satellite communication device for if I can’t re-launch. Why not do what I’ve always dreamed of doing?” I think every paramotor pilot occasionally dreams of dropping into a tight spot, doing some commando-style raid, then flying back out.

I dropped low into the clearing of the Wells Barrens Preserve to survey my landing options. Blueberry bushes were everywhere, and running through those would be difficult, with a high likelihood of tripping me. I found a recent cut through the bushes, but roots and stumps were protruding along the cut, and the ground wasn’t very flat. I weighed the risk versus the reward of landing and re-launching. I decided to line up for a landing along the cut, roughly into the wind.

Upon touching down, I discovered the approximately five mile-per-hour breeze 30 feet above was non-existent on the ground. I ran off my excess speed, vaulting over a deep rut. I knew re-launching would be difficult, but I was in pretty good shape, so as long as I didn’t trip on a root, stump, bush or rut, I’d make it back up. I balled up my wing and unclipped it from my Air Conception Nitro 200. I walked the motor over to a flatter part of the LZ-cut and set it down. I’m so happy a motor that lifts someone of my weight itself weighs only a touch over 40 pounds! I was born in the generation that these things exist! Missions like this one were the reason I wanted a lighter motor in the first place.

Blueberries were everywhere. I think sometimes there were more berries on a bush than leaves. I ate my fill, raking the bushes with my fingers and shoving handfuls in my mouth at a time. It was a lonely feeling to be in the middle of the barrens with a grey overcast sky casting flat, shadow-less light on everything. My motor and wing were were my only instant connection to the rest of the world. In minutes– assuming launch went well– I would be back at the farm with my friends, flying circles above the grass and chatting on radio about how awesome my day was.

I spread the wing across the cut, carefully keeping the lines from tangling in the bushes. I had just enough space to lay out the 20m Dudek Hadron. Ahead of me, I had about 30 feet of reasonably flat trail. I donned the motor, and clipped into my wing for a forward-facing launch in nil wind. There was no time for hesitation during the launch. I revved up the prop and blasted some air over the wing for a couple of seconds– a nill-wind launch trick I learned from my instructor and his instructor years ago. Then I ran forward, hard. The wing quickly shot through the prop wake and arrived above my head. Rather than checking the wing with my brakes to prevent overflight (the reasonable thing to do, by the way), I juiced the throttle and ran even harder. Guiding my run away from the bushes on either side, I took 5 steps over the rutted terrain and lifted skyward.

The adrenaline high made me whoop a little at 50 feet. I probably terrified a bear or two. I circled back to take a photo of my LZ, then headed for home. Crossing ME-99, I heard Johnson on the radio. He and Kris had just arrived at the farm, and were getting ready to launch. I arrived just in time to see them take off. I spend another hour and half chasing Kris and Johnson, and landed 15 minutes after sunset, strobe flashing, with one liter of fuel left.

Next time I’ll bring a bag for the berries.

 

More about the Wells Barren Preserve, from Aislinn Sarnacki’s “1-Minute Hikes” series: 1-minute hike: Wells Barrens Preserve

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Chase Cam Footage

As described in my past post, here is the edited result from flying with my chase cam. Get in touch if you’d like to build one yourself- they are really simple.

As a side note, I got some vertigo from editing the footage from the camera. The camera is held upside down in the chase rig, so I have to flip the video in production. Also, the chase cam is constantly swaying back and forth, so the video has a somewhat nauseating quality to it. Best not to make a whole 3-minute youtube video of exclusively chasecam footage.

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Returned from the Rat Race

View from Longsword LZ. I think our wings look a little like UFOs in this photo.

Not a desk job. phew.

The gorgeous East Coast sky I left behind in June.
boarding the little plane from SLC to Rogue Valley International Airport.
The board that tells us which pilots have reported their location and status each day. If your square wasn’t green by the end of task, the competition organizers HUNTED YOU DOWN. That way, if you’re in tree and can’t reach your InReach (kind of ironic name in that circumstance), the search team would click on your square and see your last tracking position.

I competed in the Rat Race US National Paragliding Competition in Oregon during my break (June 14 through June 27). Though I didn’t win anything, I had a great time and learned a lot. I’m going to miss it– this was its last year, at least under the current leadership. It was world-expanding to sit down next to pilots from the Western US and Canada, many of whom I did not previously know, and hear about their flying sites and culture. The weather was rowdy, and there were many incidents (reserve throws, tree landings, midair collisions) and unfortunately, a few accidents resulting in injury. I got more in touch with my new racing wing, but I was not comfortable enough with it to fly the race wholeheartedly. I often bailed out to the valley floor instead of risk other pilots in the tight start gaggles. Having recently met the hard ground, I have been flying more timidly this year than last year.

I spent a lot of time with the Hawaiians (There were 25 Hawaiians at the Rat Race), and their experience, sites, and attitude were so different from us Pine Tree Kickers on the East Coast. Paramotoring is not as common there. Their clouds and mountains are bigger. However, they can fly near those big clouds because their islands are surrounded by ocean, and they can always bail out toward the coast. Maybe someday I will visit.

The weather at the Rat Race was unfortunate. We started the event with a practice day, and I think that was the best weather of the whole event. Many pilots made goal. The first day of the competition brought us hot temperatures and high pressure. This resulted in many wings collapsing upon entry and exit of the “bullet thermals”– tight, narrow thermals with “sharp” edges (quick change between sinking air and rising air). In addition, the ceiling (height to which the thermals climbed) was low. The start gaggle (holding area before the race where all 200+ pilots attempt to stay aloft) was compressed due to the small area of lift and the low ceiling, so we ended up flying in close proximity to each other. There were several mid-air collisions, wings ripping from pilots going through them, and lots of shouting. Luckily no injuries or reserve tosses from the collisions.

Task Briefing every morning.
On the back of the paper maps distributed to each of us was this helpful sign for hitchhiking. The other map we received should have had “AND WEARS DEODORANT” on the back.

When the gaggle got big and fierce, I left it every time. I was taking regular collapses on my new wing, so I didn’t have it under the amount of control required to fly close to other pilots safely. I was bummed to bomb out and miss the whole XC experience, so I asked Diana to mail me out my old Rush 4, no expenses spared! I flew the last 2 days of the competition on my Rush 4, and I was WAY more comfortable, even ass-kicking in it. too bad I messed up flying the last task… I may have had a malfunction in my vario, but I was so thirsty for cooler air and longer duration flying that I focused on staying high rather than racing the course. I didn’t get any inflight video– The air was so rowdy I didn’t dare put a line-snagging camera on my head.

There were many reserve tosses, at least 10, and they all functioned as they should, with good outcomes and healthy pilots. Some tosses were barely above the trees, but still came out fast enough to save the pilot. I participated in one rescue effort for a pilot who was badly broken the first day; he took collapses low and threw his reserve too low for it deploy fully– it was out of his harness but un-deployed when rescuers found him. Though badly injured and hanging upside down with a punctured lung, broken hip, 10 broken ribs and a broken back, he stayed calm on the radio and helped the crew get to him. I was with a group of 25 guys who hiked up the mountain to help carry him down. In the end we weren’t needed, and we arrived at the crest of the mountain just in time to see the helicopter liftng him off the mountain in a dangling litter. The next day my friend broke her back in a bunch of places making goal one day, and one of my campmates at Raven’s Landing broke his leg around the same time.

My thoughts too! We are a so lucky to live in a time period when this game is possible.

Enough talk of carnage– even having been that carnage myself once, I still think what I get out of the sport is worth the risk.

LZs were plentiful at the bottom of the valleys. “The longhorn steers are big puppy dogs,” (or something like that) noted the comp organizer, though I never landed in this field. You could land at some vineyards and buy a bottle of wine after packing up your wing.

Chilling at the LZ

However, some LZs were marked on our maps as “Do Not Land.” We would be penalized for landing in one. The landowners have final say in whether they want guests on their property, and many people don’t want intruders on their front lawn (particularly the marijuana growers… they think everyone’s after their lucky charms). In a safety emergency you land where you are able and the FAA will have your back, but that won’t keep you out of court.

Award Ceremony

Since returning from the Rat Race, I’ve been working with a student to get him his 25th flight, and I’ve been experimenting with a Chase Camera that attaches to my wing and follows me where ever I fly.

The Chase Cam I whipped up in 2 hours and 10 minutes. Version 0.9. Worked fine.
Chase Cam Results!
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Kevin’s First Paramotor Solo

Kevin came to powered paragliding training with a knack for kiting the wing– though he swore he hasn’t done this before.

At any rate, we spent a few hours kiting (10 is a good minimum, but I think all together over the course of 2 days it was something like 7 hours); you can never have enough kiting. After kiting, we returned to the simulator and rehearsed handling emergency situations (what to do if you hit turbulence, a reserve toss, steering without the brakes, etc…), and the simple stuff like getting in and out of the harness while flying.

Towing: Always have a plan B (and a plan C!)

When I was confident Kevin had the control necessary for a safe launch, we progressed to tow training Sunday evening. After one short tow, a broken line on the scooter tow forced us to wrap up for the night.

With the scooter tow out of commission, and a wind forecast ideal for short flights off a nearby training hill, we woke up early Monday morning and hit the training hill. The forecast turned out wrong (wind was blowing downhill slightly) and the bamboo at the bottom of the hill had doubled in height since the previous week. I launched the wing to test the viability of flying, and we found ourselves picking the wing out of the bamboo for the next 5 minutes. On top of this, it was a hot morning. The nearby Biddeford Glacier was slowly melting to reveal an aggregate of Fireball nips containers and undelivered newspapers*.

Biddeford Glacier. All the street snow from Biddeford ends up here in the Spring– A boon for future archeologists.

We took a coffee break then hit the hill again later. Wind was even more unfavorable. We gave up on the hill and headed back to base.

The Hand Tow

Back at home, we built a 150ft hand-tow rig out of unused tow line. I had a handle from a weed-whacker that served as my connection, and we spliced a loop for the tow bridle to attach. I have towed with trucks, towed with scooter tows, and once towed with a wonderful two cylinder snowmobile engine rig which later took me to a cross country record, but I’ve never hand-towed. I called a friend who had done it before for tips, and I researched it online, finding educational videos of what to do– and what not to do. I even came across some kind of relay race event where the participants race in teams towing a paraglider pilot behind them! Fun for another day I guess!

We hit the field at 11am. It was hot out. Thermals were starting to pop. Not wanting to tow in the stronger midday of a hot day, we towed immediately. I played the part of the draft horse and tow operator, moderating the tension on Kevin as I hauled him into the air, careful not to let him stray too far to one side. It was hard work in such light winds. We finally got a few good tows– one about 40 feet, which gave Kevin time to set up for a landing and practice his flare– but the sun and heat were exhausting us. I felt like puking after that really good tow, so we called it good after a couple hours. Did I say it was hot out? It was 97ºF and humid!

Back home, we re-hydrated and watched paramotoring videos, including several previous students’ first flights. Totally beat, I took a nap and Kevin got lunch. We reconvened at 5pm and rehearsed motor control on the ground and in the simulator, including a motor-on dry run of Kevin’s first flight. I had to meet another student on the field at 6pm, so we headed out, unsure if we would have the energy to fly ourselves.

Wind was variable in strength through the night. Kris (the other pilot) launched a bunch of flights. He is starting to dial in his landings. His launches are for the most part very good! Every attempt at launching resulted in a flight– excellent for someone with 17 flights.

The Flight

In the last 30 minutes of Part 103-legal flying hours, with a strobe light donned, Kevin put the motor on his back and clipped into the wing. He performed one flawless inflation with the motor running– just to get a sense of what a running motor feels like while inflating the wing– then he killed the motor and put the wing back down. We set up at the rear of the field (runway behind you is useless) and prepared for the flight.

Again, Kevin brought the wing straight up over his head and immediately continued his forward motion. The wing under control, I radioed for him to add more power and keep running. In a few more steps he was off the ground! Kevin climbed to about 400 feet above the ground and got into his seat. He did a left-hand lap around the field and lined up for a graceful landing. Maybe he could have flared later, but with a slow school wing, there isn’t much flare to work with. He sat down softly and stood back up. I couldn’t be happier- his launch and flight were well controlled, and his landing was slow and safe. Congratulations Kevin! Much more flying is in your future!

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Continuing Education

Kris started his training in the country of Poland, then returned to the US to continue his paramotor training in Maine. Already having a number of towed flights, and 6 paramotor flights under his belt, He’ll be training for just 5 days. This past weekend he took flights 7 through 13. I’m really impressed with his endurance and ability to launch in no wind! His kiting ability is impressive too, as is his familiarity with the motor (a Polish brand I’m not familiar with; maybe I’ll write about it when I know more). He obviously had good instruction in Poland.

Nevertheless, the first couple hours at School of Personal Flight were spent in the hang test/simulator going over the syllabus to make sure between his two instructors no topic was missed. In addition to coaching Kris through more practice flights, I’ll be teaching him FAR 103 and US Airspace. We’ll also let the trims out on his Synthesis 2 and apply speedbar to see how fast that thing can go. The lucky guy lives really close to the training field, so I think we’ll be flying together a lot 🙂

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Keith’s First Solo

After lots of practice kiting, and a short flight off a nearby bunny hill, Keith took his first flight on a paramotor Sunday evening. It was gratifying to see his hard work pay off.

Keith’s journey started last Wednesday. We focused on kiting and getting a feel for the wing without the motor. Thursday was more kiting. We found some really good wind for it at Biddeford Airport, and the concept of wing control began solidifying in Keith’s muscle memory. Friday was really windy (like, REALLY windy), so we went to the hardware store and improved the hang-test / PPG Simulator. Once we had it really nice, Keith rehearsed the first flight in the simulator– starting the motor, stowing the brakes, getting in the seat, sliding out of the seat, and flaring for landing.

Paramotor flight simulation. Some imagination required.

We also did some reserve throw practice using a dummy reserve that Diana (my lovely wife) sewed up while we were playing with the simulator. I made a little infographic with the results:

A picture of me looking teacherly, and Keith looking like a badass.

Saturday morning Keith got his first gliding flight on a gopher-hole-wracked hill near Biddeford. He demonstrated gentle brake inputs and a cool head. Later that afternoon, we went to the field with several local pilots and kited until the wind calmed down enough to fly. Keith was rocking the inflations. In particular, he was doing well with reverse inflations (facing the wing to inflate it, then turning around and running with it). Toward the end of the evening, we did some motor-on “taxiing” inflations.

 

Keith slipping the surly bonds of Earth

Sunday morning, we drove all around looking for a place to kite. It was just too windy near the coast. Even the small Dudek Zakospeed 16 was yanking us around. Sunday evening, though… You couldn’t ask for better weather for a first solo! The sky was overcast, blocking any thermal turbulence. The breeze from the sea was still blowing, but dropping in strength steadily. Keith had a generous 5mph headwind to help with his forward inflation launches, which he nailed twice in a row! I’m proud! We had to stop the evening after 2 flights as the sun set.

Monday was rainy, but Tuesday afternoon yielded beautiful flying. Keith flew another 4 times, nailing his first attempt at a reverse launch. More flying on Wednesday, and then more rain on Thursday. We called it a week as Memorial Day weekend was upon us.

I start up another cycle of paramotor training this weekend. What are you waiting for? come on up to Maine for some sweet flights!

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Classes have started!

I just got back from the Florida paragliding competitions (Spring Fling and East Coast Paragliding Championships). Weather was subpar for this time of year in Florida, but we still had a couple 100+ mile days! Congratulations to Dustin Pachura for setting the new Florida paragliding distance record at 140 miles!

The starting line
Neverland, start of the 2017 Spring Fling

In Spring Fling, I took 3rd place in Serial Class. I only made it to goal once, but I made it fast! I didn’t place in the ECPC this year. I blame my mental state after my December accident, and getting to know my new wing. After flying almost 90k with David Prentice and Chandler during one task, I know it’s not my wing, it’s me. Despite the uncooperative weather, I had a great time. Neverland Flight Park is growing fast, and the people there are like family to me.

New Motors

Ok, now to business: I picked up two Air Conception Nitro 200 motors from Aviator PPG in Lake Wales. One motor is a pull-start, the other is electric start. These are the two School motors that you will be learning on if you purchase the $2500 no-gear-commitment package, and I think I’ve picked the best motor family to accommodate most pilots. A lot of thought went into this choice starting from my first demo on an Air Conception at Beach Blast 2016. You’re going to enjoy learning on these motors!

Out of the 26 motors I’ve flown, this is the first Electric start, and man is it fun! it makes flying whimsical. The motor weighs only a little over 40lbs, so I can kite the wing to feel out the air for half an hour, then just turn around, hit the electric start, and take off. You don’t need to do a superhero lunge to stand up with the motor, either; you just put it on like a backpack and stand up like a normal human being. Mainly, these motors are light and powerful, and they’re going to fly my 260lbs guys as well as my 150lbs guys.

Hang Test

The hangtest at Aviator PPG that I’m trying to emulate in Maine

I built a large hang test in the backyard, as the previous hang test– my woodshed– really didn’t look like it can take any more abuse. This things is a behemoth. It’s 10 feet tall and weighs more than twice as much as I do. I was able to construct it single-handedly, but not without sacrifices– I destroyed one lawn chair when a 4×4 went through it. In the near future I plan to have pilots run their motors at full-throttle while attached to a realistic set of risers hanging from this thing (I was inspired by the excellent setup at Aviator PPG).

oops. Sorry Diana!
Completed hang test. Come hang out sometime!

First Class

One of my students couldn’t make it this month, but one student will be the inaugural graduate of the new 9-day flash-course format. We’re starting a little early since it’s just him and it fits his schedule better. Weather looks excellent for the next week, so we lucked out! It’s going to be hard teaching the classroom subjects when it’s 75 and sunny outside.

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